(hé)Raccoon Dog

1. 分类Taxonomy




Nyctereutes procyonoidesGray1834);英文名Raccoon Dog

2. 保护级别Conservation Assessment


National second class key protected species of China (only populations in wild)


Least Concerned species on IUCN Red List

3. 形态特征Physical Description


体型小,腿短,外形有点像狐狸脸上的花纹北美浣熊Procyon lotor(图12额头和鼻子是白色眼睛周围是黑色两边长有蓬松的长毛;背的前部有一交叉形图案;胸部、腿和脚是暗褐色。体一般比较矮粗,小于身体33%,且有蓬松的毛。背毛浅棕灰色,背部和尾部的毛尖黑色


The body length of raccoon dog ranges from 45 to 66 cm, tail length from 16 to 22 cm long, and weigh from 3 to 6 kg. On average, individuals in Europe tend to be larger than those in China and Japan.

Raccoon dog is small-sized, fox-like canid with short legs and a face pattern resembles that of raccoon (Procyon Lotor) (Fig. 1, 2). The forehead and snout are white, and eye patches are black. There are long and fluffy hairs on both sides of the cheeks. The front of the back has a cross pattern. The chest, legs and feet are dark brown. The body is generally stocky. The tail is shorter than 33% of the body, and with long fluffy hair. Back hair is light brown-gray, and hair tips on back and tail are black.

Raccoon dogs moult twice a year, once in spring and once in summer.


1. 貉外形示意图作者Michigan Science Art来源Animal Diversity Web

Figure 1. Raccoon dog (Contributor: Michigan Science Art; origin: Animal Diversity Web)


2. 貉外形实体示意图(来源不明)

Figure 2. Raccoon dog (origin: unknown)


4. 地理分布



Raccoon dogs are distributed in China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea and Russia. Raccoon dogs are found in Europe too, but they weren't native there but were introduced (Fig. 3).

In China, raccoon dogs live in central, south and east areas (Fig. 4).


3. 貉世界范围内地理分布(来源IUCN

Figure 3. Geographic range of racoon dog around the world (origin: IUCN)



4. 貉中国范围地理分布(来源《中国兽类野外手册》)

Figure 4. Geographic range of raccoon dog in China (origin: A Guide to the Mammals of China)

5. 栖息环境Habitat


Raccoon dogs inhabit broad leaved forests in open areas close to water, or in open meadows, dense shrubs and reed fields.  And they are rarely seen in the dense forests of high mountains. Raccoon dogs prefer to forage in lush woodlands, especially those with ferns.  

6. 生活习性Ecology

6.1 食物Food Habits


Raccoon dogs are opportunistic omnivores, which means they generally eat what they can find. Their food includes frogs, mollusks (snail, etc.), insects, fish, small mammals, birds and eggs, fruits and grains. Among all food types, rodents (mouse) take a large proportion. They rely more on plant than most other canines (fox, wolf, etc.), and eat roots, stems, leaves, buds, berries, seeds and nuts.

6.2 社群Sociality




Raccoon dogs are usually solitary, but sometimes live and hunt in pairs or small family groups.

Raccoon dogs use latrines to communicate with other members of the species. A latrine is a definite site where an entire group of raccoon dogs will both urinate and defecate.

Raccoon dogs are vocal canids. However, they do not, like all other representatives of the order, bark. They may whine, whimper, or mew; these are all responses coupled with friendly or submissive behavior. They may growl when frightened or when being aggressive.

6.3 家域Home Range


Home range is 5 to 10 km2.

6.4 节律Rhythm



Raccoon dogs are nocturnal animals who are active at night.

They are the only hibernant canid species in north areas.

7. 繁殖Reproduction



5. 成对的貉(来源红山动物园小红山生物多样性项目)

Figure 5. Raccoon dog pair (origin: Biodiversity project in Xiao Hongshan of Hongshan Zoo)





6. 貉幼仔(来源www. iltaw. com

Figure 6. Pups of raccoon dog (origin: www. iltaw. com)



7. 一个貉家庭:一对夫妻带着三个孩子(来源红山动物园小红山生物多样性项目)

Raccoon dogs are monogamous and form permanent breeding pairs, in which a female forms a stable bond with a male.  

During mating, females are courted by 3 to 4 males. There is little fighting among males for mates. An inverted U-shaped tail posture in males is associated sexual arousal and expresses dominance.

Mating happens in February to March, gestation last 59 to 64 days. Raccoon dogs give birth under dense bushes or in caves. Litter size is 5-8, but sometimes as many as 12.

The baby is born with its eyes closed and covered with soft black fur. Between the 9th and 10th day, pups' eyes open and teeth are visible by 14 to 16 days. Mothers wean their pups between 30 to 40 days of age. At 4 months, the pups begin learning how to hunt by watching their parents. The offspring will reach sexual maturity at 9 to 11 months.

A couple will raise a baby together. While the female goes out for hunting, the male guards the young.


8. 保护现状Conservation Status


Raccoon dogs, once thought to be widespread, are now rare and may be at risk of endemic extinction. Raccoon dogs are widely bred as fur animals, so there are captive individuals which escape and become wild individuals at home and abroad.  




CARR K. "Nyctereutes procyonoides" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web[EB/OL]. 2004. https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Nyctereutes_procyonoides/

KAUHALA K, SAEKI M. Nyctereutes procyonoides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T14925A85658776[EB/OL]. 2016. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T14925A85658776.en

SMITH A T, 解焱. 中国兽类野外手册[M]. 长沙: 湖南教育出版社, 2009.

国家林业和草原局/国家公园管理局. 国家重点保护野生动物名录[EB/OL]. 2021. http://www.forestry.gov.cn/html/main/main3954/20210225160347342521589/file/20210225160401102702964.pdf

刘少英, 吴毅. 中国兽类图鉴[M]. 福州: 海峡书局, 2019.

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